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ArribaAbajo The Spanish of Mexico: A Partially Annotated Bibliography for 1970-90 Part I

Randal C. Fulk

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Abstract: Particularly relevant in the era of the North American Free Trade Agreement, this bibliography is the first of a two-part sequence on the Spanish spoken in Mexico, which represents a continuation of Jack Emory Davis's «The Spanish of Mexico: An Annotated Bibliography for 1940-69», published in Hispania 54 (1971), 624-56. The following sections are included in Part I:

  1. Introduction
  2. Abbreviations, Sources
  3. Bibliographies and General Studies
  4. Phonology, Phonetics, Entonation
  5. Morphology and Word Formation, Syntax
  6. Lexicography, Studies of Lexicology, Argot and Slang, Semantics

Key Words: bibliography, Mexico, Spanish language, linguistics

I. Introduction

In the era of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), comes an increased awareness of the need for up-to-date information on all aspects of the geographic block formed by Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Trade flows from the Yukon to the Yucatan. Goods and people move from Bangor, Maine to Barstow, California; trucks roll along the highways from Quebec City to Quintana Roo. We live in an international economy.

Parallel to the need for commercial atlases for the NAFTA area is the legitimate scholarly need for linguistic studies of the languages spoken in North America. This bibliography attempts to bring the information on the materials published concerning the Spanish spoken in Mexico up-to-date from 1970 through 1990. This bibliography is a continuation of Jack Emory Davis's «The Spanish of Mexico: An Annotated Bibliography for 1940-69», published in Hispania, 54 (1971), 624-56. The Davis bibliography itself was a continuation of the Mexican section of Madaline Nichol's A Bibliographic Guide to Materials on American Spanish (Harvard Univ. Press, 1941, 81-92) and was also a continuation and incorporation of Hensley C. Woodbridge's «An Annotated Bibliography of Mexican Spanish for 1940-19 53», Kentucky Foreign Language Quarterly 1 (1954), 80-8984.

The goal of this present bibliography has been to give comprehensive coverage for the two decades (1970-90) since the appearance of the Davis bibliography, with the hope that eventually the Davis bibliography and the present one can be united and published in book form as Fifty Years of Mexican Spanish Studies: 1940-90. For the present this bibliography should be used in conjunction with Davis.

This bibliography treats only the Spanish spoken in Mexico. The reader interested in Chicano or Mexican-American Spanish should consult categories two through eight of Richard V. Teschner, Garland D. Bills, and Jerry R Craddock, Spanish and English of United States Hispanos: A Critical, Annotated, Linguistic Bibliography, Arlington: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1975.

The basic organization of the Davis bibliography has been followed to allow for some   —246→   measure of continuity, yet at the same time the nine divisions of the Davis bibliography have been expanded to eleven and made to more closely parallel the arrangement of the Linguistic Bibliography. For example, the Argot-Slang section of the Davis bibliography is subsumed under the Lexicography section of this bibliography, while Orthography which Davis subsumes under Morphology-Syntax has been given its own sectional division. Responding to the growth of interest and publications in psycho- and sociolinguistics, we have introduced a section on these topics. And to remedy the lack of a section on Colonial Mexican Spanish and parallel to the Diachronic Linguistics section of the Linguistic Bibliography there is a section on Historical Linguistics devoted to Studies of Sixteenth Century Mexican Spanish.

In keeping with the Davis bibliography works of a pedagogical nature are excluded, unless the topic might shed fight on the Spanish of Mexico. Some topics embrace more than one aspect of linguistics and have been placed under the most appropriate category.

The growth of interest in the language spoken in the most populous of Spanish-speaking countries is betrayed in the 348 entries contained in this bibliography which covers a twenty year period-compared to the 302 entries of the Davis bibliography which spans the work of three decades and of necessity includes a variety of linguistic articles of a more superficial and popular nature found in the popular Mexican press.

In 1964, Juan M. Lope Blanch described the state of the art of Mexican dialectology and compared it to a child of early age who has suffered since birth from grave illnesses. As can be seen from the number of entries in this bibliography, most of which are from professional, scholarly journals and books, Mexican dialectology and linguistic studies in general have outgrown their childhood diseases and have come of age-thanks in large part to Lope Blanch himself.

II. Abbreviations, Sources

Abs. Ábside; revista de cultura mexicana, México.

ACIEA-I: Actas del I Congreso Internacional sobre el Español de América, San Juan (forthcoming).

ACIEA-II: Actas del II Congreso internacional sobre el español de América, México, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras (Bajo los auspicios de la UNAM y organizado por un comité presidido por el doctor José G. Morena de Alba entre el 27 y el 31 de enero de 1986), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1986, 504pp.

ACIH-V: Actas del quinto Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas, celebrado en Bordeaux del 2 al 8 de septiembre de 1974. publicadas bajo la dirección de: Maxime Chevalier; François López... [et al.] I; II. Bordeaux III (por la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas), 1977 (1978), 428 pp.; p. 429-897.

ACIH-VI: Actas del sexto congreso internacional de hispanistas, celebrado en Toronto del 22 al 26 de agosto de 1977. Eds. A. M. Gordon and E. Rugg. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto, Dept of Span. and Port., 1980.

ALFAL-I: Actas de la Primera Reunión Latinoamericana de Lingüística y Filología de la A.L.F.A.L. (Viña del Mar, 1964). Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 1973.

ALFAL-III: Actas del III Congreso de la ALFAL (Asociación de Lingüística y Filología de América Latina) (San Juan de Puerto Rico, 1971). San Juan, 1976.

ALFAL-IV: Actas del IV congreso internacional de la ALFAL (Asociación de Lingüística y Filología de América Latina) (Lingüística y Educación), Lima (640 Enero, 1975). Lima, Perú: Univ. Nac. Mayor de San Marcos, 1978, 691 pp.

ALFAL-VI: Actas del VI Congreso de la ALFAL (Phoenix, Arizona). México, en prensa.

ALFAL-VII: Actas del VII Congreso de la ALFAL (Asociación de Lingüística y Filología de América Latina) Homenaje a Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, 1984) Santo Domingo: Talleres Gráficos de la Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña, 1987, 2 tomos.

ALVAR-I: Philologica Hispaniensia in Honorem Manuel Alvar, I: Dialectología. Madrid: Editorial Gredos, 1983.

AnAntro: Anales de Antropología. Universidad Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, México, D. F.

AnInd: Anuario Indigenista, Instituto Indigenista Interamericano, México.

AnLet: Anuario de Letras, Universidad Autónoma de México, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, México, D. F.

Archiv: Arhiv für das Studium der Neueren Sprachen, (Archiv für das Studium der Neueren   —247→   Spracken und Literaturen). Heidelberg, Germany.

BAHL: Boletín de la Academia Hondureña de la Lengua, Tegucigalpa.

BFCh: Boletín de Filología de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago.

BH: Bulletin Hispanique. Bordeaux, France.

BHS: Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Liverpool. England.

BILEUG: Bolletino dell'Instituto de Lingue Estere Genoa, Italy.

BN: Beiträge zur Namenforschung. Neue Folge. Heidelberg. Germany.

BRAE: Boletín de la Real Academia Española. Madrid, Spain.

CANFIEL: D. Lincoln Canfield, contributor to HLAS.

CRRL: Current Research in Romance Languages. James P. Lantolf and Gregory B. Stone, eds. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Univ. Linguistics Club, 1981, 230 pp.

DAI: Dissertation Abstracts International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Davis: Jack Emory Davis. «The Spanish of Mexico: An Annotated Bibliography for 1940-69», Hisp, 54 (1971), 624-56.

DHEA: Dialectología hispanoamericana: estudios actuales. Gary E. Scavnicky, ed Washington D. C.: Georgetown Univ. Press, 1980, 127pp.

Dialectología. Julio Fernández-Sevilla, Humberto López Morales, José Andrés Molina, eds.; Antonio Quilis, ed. & biog.; Gregorio Salvador, ed. & introd.; Elena Alvar, bibliog. Madrid: Gredos, 1983, 659 pp.

Diál: Diálogos: revista de letras y artes, México, D. F.

EHN: Estudios de Historia Novohispana, UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, México.

Est. esp. mex.: Estudios sobre el español de México. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. México: UNAM, 1972. Est. esp. prin. ciud: Estudios sobre el español hablado en las principales ciudades de América. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. México: UNAM, 1977.

Est. esp. yuc.: Estudios sobre el español de Yucatán. Juan M. Lope Blanch. México: UNAM, 1987.

FN: Filologickeskie Nauki. Moscow, U.S.S.R.

GURT: Georgetown Univ. Round Table on Languages and Linguistics. Washington, D. C.

Hisp: Hispania. Los Angeles, CA.

HLAS: Handbook of Latin American Studies.

HR: Hispanic Review; A Quarterly Journal Devoted to Research in the Hispanic Languages and Literatures. Philadelphia, PA.

Humanitas. Humanitas, Univ. de Nuevo León, Centro de Estudios Humanísticos, Monterrey, Mexico.

Ibam: Iberoamericana.

Ibero: Iberoromania (Zeitschrift für die Iberomanischen Sprachen und Literaturen in Europa und Amerika/Revista Dedicada a las Lenguas y Literaturas Iberorománicas de Europa y América). Kuhardt, Germany.

IJAL: International Journal of Linguistics.

Ind: Índice. México, D. F.

Inv. dial. mex.: Investigaciones sobre dialectología mexicana. Juan M. Lope Blanch. México: UNAM, 1979.

Inv. ling. lex.: Investigaciones lingüísticas en lexicografía. Luis Fernando Lara, Roberto Ham Chande, and María Isabel García Hidalgo eds. México: El Colegio de México. (Jornadas, 89). 1979.

JPhon.: Journal of Phonetics. London & New York: Univ. of Essex.

KNF: Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny. Warsaw.

LdD: Letras de Deusto. Bilbao: Univ. de Deusto. Spain.

LdeM.: Las lenguas de México. 2 vols. México: SEPINAH, 1975.

LEA: Lingüística Española Actual. Madrid: Centro Iberoamericana de Cooperación.

Maledicta: Maledicta (The International Journal of Verbal Aggression). Waukasha, WI.

Names: Names (Journal of the American Name Society). Saranac Lake, New York.

NRFH: Nueva revista de filología hispánica. México, D. F.

PBLS: Proceedings of the... Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley, California.

PRom: Papers in Romance. Seattle, Wash.: Univ. of Washington.

RCEI: Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, Islas Canarias.

RLSP: Revista de Letras de Sao Paulo.

RDTP: Revista de Dialectología y Tradiciones Populares. Madrid.

RFE: Revista de filología española. Madrid.

RJB: Romanistisches Jahrbuch. Hamburg, Germany.

RomN: Romance Notes. Chapel Hill, N. Carolina.

RPh: Romance Philology. Berkeley, California.

RRL: Revue Roumaine de Linguistique. Bucharest, Rumania.

RUY: Revista de la Univ. de Yucatán. Mérida, México.

StCL: Studii si Cercetari Linguistice. Bucharest, Rumania.


SIL: Studies in Linguistics, Southern Methodist Univ., Dept. of Anthropology, Dallas, Texas.

Thes: Thesaurus. Instituto Caro y Cuervo, Bogotá.

Verba: Verba, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

VR: Vox Romanica (Annales Helvitici Explorandis Linguis Romanicis Destinati). Zurich, Switzerland.

Vuelta: Vuelta (Revista mensual). México, D. F.

YWMLS: The Year´s Work in Modern Language Studies. London.

Zgusta: Ladislav Zgusta. Lexicography Today: An Annotated Bibliography of the Theory of Lexicography. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1988.

ZRP: Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie. Tübingen, Germany.

III. Bibliographies and General Studies

A. Bibliographies

1. Davis, Jack Emory. The Spanish of Mexico: An Annotated Bibliography for 1940-69», Hisp, 54 (1971), 624-56.

The Davis bibliography is a continuation of the Mexican section of Madaline Nichol's A Bibliographic Guide to Materials on American Spanish (Harvard Univ. Press, 1941, 81-92), and also a continuation and incorporation of Hensley C. Woodbridge's «An Annotated Bibliography of Mexican Spanish for 1940-1953», KFLQ, 1 (1954), 80-89. The goal of this bibliography has been to give a comprehensive coverage for the three decades indicated. It contains 302 entries placed into 9 divisions by author in alphabetical order. Continuous numbering of entries for easy reference. Divisions are General Studies, Lexicography and Semantics-General, Phonology, Phonetics, Entonation-General, Morphology Syntax, Orthography-General, Regional Studies, Interlingual Influence, Argot-Slang, Studies of Individual Authors and/or Literary Works, and finally, Place Names.

«Sequel to excellent bibliographies of other sections of Latin America by Davis... Annotations are especially well done, and regional designation is helpful to dialectologists. One is especially impressed by all that has been written on Mexican Spanish». As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 34: 3053 (1972).

2. Luna Traill, Elizabeth. La investigación filológica en el Centro de Lingüística Hispánica. Presentación de J. M. Lope Blanch. México: UNAM, 1985. 56 pp.

3. Parodi, Claudia. La investigación filológica en México (1970-1980). Mexico: UNAM, 1981. 207 pp. (Introduction also appeared as review article in Diálogos, 17/4, July-Aug. 1981, 28-30).

This useful guide concerns itself with all aspects of linguistic investigation in Mexico for the decade mentioned. The book is divided into three parts: I. The investigation of the indigenous languages of Mexico; II. The investigation of the Spanish spoken in Mexico; and, III. A bibliography of linguistic investigation in Mexico. Not annotated. Divided into thirty-five sections with entries listed alphabetically by author. Each division numbers entries separately. -Also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 44: 4511 (1982) and rev. by María Milagro Caballero Wangüement in Historia y Bibliografía Americanistas (Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanas, Seville, Spain), 26 (1982), 231-32.

4. Solé, Carlos A. «Bibliografía del español de América: 1967-1971», AnLet, 10 (1972), 253-88.

The section on Mexican Spanish serves as a bridge between the Davis bibliography and the present one on Mexican Spanish. Contains 51 entries on Mexican Spanish, mostly unannotated.

B. General Studies

5. Atlas lingüístico de México. I. Ed. by Juan M. Lope Blanch. México: El Colegio de México (Publ. del Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios de El Colegio de México, Serie Estudios de dialectología, III). (Still in press).

Soon to appear, the long-awaited publication of the results of almost twenty years of labor by the Seminario de dialectología mexicana, under the able direction of Juan M. Lope Blanch and a score of field investigators.

6. Cárdenas, Daniel N. «Mexican Spanish», in El lenguaje de los chicanos: Regional and Social Characteristics Used by Mexican-Americans. Hernández-Chávez, E., Cohen, A. D., and Beltrano, A. F., Arlington, VA. (1975), 1-5.

7. Colombo Airoldi, Fulvia and Elizabeth Luna Traill. «El estudio de la norma culta mexicana. Estado Actual», ALFAL-VII, 1987, I: 169-77.

8. Cuestionario provisional para el estudio coordinado de la norma lingüística culta de las principales ciudades de Ibero-américa y de la Península Ibérica. I. Juan M. Lope Blanch, Coordinator. México: Guadarrama Impresores, S. A.-, 1968,   —249→   506 pp.

We include this work because it is the method used to collect the data base for most of the articles included in this bibliography which discuss the educated speech of Mexico City and also so as to be able to note the important reviews it has been given. The concerted effort of the Comisión de lingüística y dialectología Iberoamericana, meeting in Bloomington, Indiana in August, 1964 and subsequently in Montevideo, Madrid, and Bogotá, undertook the coordinated study of the linguistic norm for cultivated speech for the principle cities of Iberoamérica and the Iberian Peninsula of which this questionnaire is a starting point Part I includes phonetics and phonology, morphosyntax and lexicology. Part II, yet to appear, will deal with syntactical items on a broader sense and is to include colloquial and stylistic structures. «All in all the questionnaire reflects and [sic] excellent beginning and we wish the Comisión the best in their venture». -D. N. Cárdenas in HR, 39 (1971), 441-42.

«Auch werm eine realistische Skepsis am Platz ist, ob das ganze Projekt in der vorgesehenen Weise an allen vorgesehenen Orten in der vorgesehenen Zeit wird realisiert werden können, so möchten wir doch hoffen, das der einmal eingeschlagene Weg mit Energie und Zähigkeit -bei allen zu erwartenden Schwierigkeiten- weiterverfolgt werden möge. Die Resultate werden die Mühe lohnen». -K. Baldinger in ZRP, 85 (1969), 648-49.

«Cette entreprise a de quoi effrayer, mais si elle réussit, ce que nous lui souhaitons, elle apportera une base pour une véritable géographie linguistique hispanique». -B. Pottier in BH, 72 (1970), 492-93.

Also rev. by P. Boyd-Bowman in Hisp, 53 (1970), 153-54.

9. Cuestionario para la delimitación de las zonas dialectales de México. México: El Colegio de México, 1970, 86 pp. 60 fig. (Seminario de Dialectología directed by Juan M. Lope Blanch).

The dialectal study begun in 1967 led to the development of a questionaire with 370 concepts which were tested by 12 investigators in 20 places in all regions of Mexico. The results of this fieldwork led to the preparation of a second questionnaire with 480 questions concerning 700 linguistic problems and was applied to another 29 locations. This resulted in the preparation of a third questionnaire with 1000 questions which will be used in 250 more places of 3-4 informants each. [L. B.] and his coworkers hope to discover the most important dialect zones of the Mexican territory. -Rev. by K. Baldinger in ZRP, 86 (1970), 688 and María Beatriz Fontanella de Weinberg in RPh, 28 (1974-75), 104-11.

10. Estudios sobre el español de México. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. Publ. del Centro de Lingüística Hispánica 2; México: UNAM, 1972, 177 pp. (Second edition revised, 1983, 181 pp).

«Collection of articles published between 1960 and 1970, all of which describe aspects of the Spanish of present-day Mexico. Several have to do with the possible influence of the Nahuatl substratum: the arcaizante aspect of Mexican Spanish; vowels that tend to be eliminated; final /r/ and the Nahuatl substratum; full consonantization of /y/; the preterite in Mexican Spanish; the extensive use of reflexive verbs; the possessive adjective in referring to parts of the body; and even possible Nahuatl influence on the grammar. It is to be noted that some of the "Mexican" traits are also found in other parts of Latin America». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 38: 6093 (1976).

«This collection of ten articles, written 1960-1970 and assembled from diverse sources is representative of a transitional period in Hispanic dialectology, between those studies marked by more traditional approaches and those with a more formally sociolinguistic emphasis on research methodology. The articles are organized in the chronological order of their appearance within three major divisions: I. CUESTIONES GENERALES; II. FONÉTICA; III. GRAMÁTICA (incl. lexical problems)». -K. H. Kvavick in RPh, 33 (1979-80), 194-201.

«Lope Blanch ist sicher einer der besten Kenner des mexikanischen Spanisch; ob seine Warnungen vor einer Überschätzung des nahua-Einflusses, die sich wie ein roter Faden durch die Beiträge hindurchziehen, in allen Fällen berichtigt sind, wird die Künftige Forschung überprüfen müssen». -Kurt Baldinger in ZRP, 92 (1976), 606.

11. Estudios sobre el español hablado en las principales ciudades de América. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. y prol. México: UNAM, 1977. 572 pp. (Abbrev. Est. esp. prin. ciud).

Unites in a single volume the studies made up to this time of the cultured Spanish spoken in various cities: La Habana (2 studies); San Juan de Puerto Rico (1); México (16); Caracas (1); Buenos Aires (11); and Santiago de Chile (3). Of the sixteen studies for Mexico City, thirteen pertain to   —250→   morphosyntax, with the other three articles dealing with Indigenisms, Anglicisms, and the lexicon pertaining to infant clothing in the educated speech of Mexico City. -Rev. by R. Williamson in Rev. Can. Est. Hisp. 8,1 (1983), 133-37; also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 42: 4537 (1980).

12. El estudio del español hablado culto: Historia de un proyecto. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. México: UNAM, 1986, 216 pp.

History of the project started in 1964 in Bloomington Indiana to study the linguistic norm of cultured speech of the principle cities of Latin America and Spain. Most important part of this book for Mexican Spanish is the section «El estudio de la norma culta mexicana. Estado actual». (pp. 185-94) which contains a bibliography of sixty items published 1967-1983 on Mexico City educated speech.

13. Estudios de lingüística española. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. México: UNAM, 1986. 184 pp.

This volume no doubt gathers together many essays previously published in disparate journals.

14. El habla de la ciudad de México. Materiales para su estudio. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. México: Centro de Lingüística Hispánica de la UNAM, 1971, 449 pp. (Publicaciones del Centro de Lingüística Hispánica, 3)

Índice: Primera parte: Entrevistas con un solo informante (pp. 9-153). Segunda parte: Diálogos entre dos informantes (pp. 155-322). Tercera parte: Conferencias (pp. 323-362). Cuarta parte: Encuestas secretas (pp. 363-447).

«Selected samples of the 400 hours of recordings of Mexico City residents, made by members of the Centro de Lingüística Hispánica of the Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México under the direction of Professor Juan M. Lope Blanch. The selections, usually representing an hour of recording time or 30 minutes, are from a variety of language situations: some were lectures, some dialogues between two informants, and a large number were interviews of a single informant. The principal knowledge gained from the printed samples is in the realm of syntax and vocabulary. Spelling is traditional». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 36: 3847 (1974).

15. El habla popular de la ciudad de México. Materiales para su estudio. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. México: UNAM, 1976, 463 pp.

This collection of tape recordings of the Spanish spoken in Mexico City contains a Prologue by [L. B.] and is divided into three parts: I. Entrevistas con un solo informante; II. Diálogos con dos informantes; and III. Encuestas secretas. It represents the principle data base for most of the studies of the popular speech of Mexico City listed in this bibliography. -Also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 42: 4562 (1980).

16. Investigaciones sobre dialectología mexicana. Juan M. Lope Blanch, ed. Inst. de Investigaciones Filológicas. México: UNAM, 1979, 201 pp, (Abbrev. Inv. dial. mex).

This volume, as its name indicates, unites a series of works on the Spanish spoken in Mexico which have as a common denominator the polymorphism of Mexican dialects. «Este volumen por su problemática y por la variedad de los temas tratados en él, resulta de gran interés para los lingüistas hispánicos, además de facilitar la consulta de trabajos dispersos y difíciles de encontrar en muchas ocasiones». -A. Quilis in RFE, 61 (1981), 263-65. Also rev. by M. Perl in RPh, 20 (1981), 362-63, and P. M. Boyd-Bowman in HR, 50 (1982), 373-74; also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 44: 4568 (1982).

17. Espinosa, A.M. «Tendencias lingüísticas en el español de Méjico», Verba, 2 (1975), 107-17.

«A once-over of the phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon of Mexico, as revealed in the Escritores contemporáneos de México, edited by Paul Rogers (1949) and supported by data from Kany's works on American Spanish». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 38: 6074 (1976)

18. Garza Cuarón, Beatriz. «La dialectología del español de México en los últimos veinte años», ACIEA-II. 1986, 119-26.

«Analiza los trabajos que sobre lingüística iberoamericana aparecen en el tomo IV de Current Trends in Linguistics. Sol Saporta hace una introducción que no sirve de resumen analítico y es injustamente negativa en sus juicios; Coseriu, según la autora, presenta un panorama parcial, con muchos vacíos especialmente sobre México y con juicios poco equitativos; Malkiel es más ponderado pero no está exento de omisiones y juicios subjetivos; Garza Cuarón considera con razón que toda disciplina necesita cierta perspectiva histórica para tomar consciencia de sí misma y orientar sus búsquedas y que ésta y existe en Iberoamérica y en especial en Méjico; da una visión sumaria pero bastante completa del desarrollo de la lingüística en Méjico: investigadores, centros de investigación,   —251→   publicaciones, proyectos investigativos como el Atlas de Méjico, enseñanza de la lingüística, etc.» -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes., 42 (1987) p. 753.

19. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Estado actual de la dialectología mexicana», ALFAL-1, 1973, 195-205.

We include this article by [L. B.] since its publication date falls within the time frame of this bibliography. [L. B.] describes the state of the art of Mexican dialectology in 1964 before the linguistic project began. He takes the pulse of Mexican dialectology in that year and his diagnosis is that «la dialectología mexicana es como un niño de muy corta edad que ha sufrido, desde el momento mismo de su nacimiento, de muy graves dolencias». (p. 195) As can be seen in the number of entries in this present bibliography, Mexican dialectology has recovered from its childhood diseases.

20. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Las zonas dialectales de México: Proyecto de delimitación», NRFH, 19 (1970), 1-11.

[LB.] discusses the continuing project for the delimitation of the dialectal regions of Mexico which he estimates will require a minimum of seven years, during which the investigators from the Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios de El Colegio de México will have visited a minimum of 300 localities.

«Describes work undertaken by Seminario de Lingüística General of the Colegio de México. Explains methodology used and surveys some of its findings. [M. E. Simmons]» -As annot. by Canfield, HLAS 34: 3097 (1972).

21. Lope Blanch, Juan, M. «Dialectología mexicana y sociolingüística», NRFU, 23 (1974), 1-34.

[L. B.] offers a situation report of the project begun in 1966 to systematically survey linguistically the Mexican region of the Spanish-speaking world. The origins of the project and the first activities were discussed in «Las zonas dialectales de México: Proyecto de delimitación», NRFH, 19 (1970), 1-11, (see note 20). Contains an appendix of the cities which have been studied so far. -Rev. by M. Birladeanu in StCL, 29 (1978), 462-66.

«A good once-over of the efforts that have been made since 1966, under the direction of Lope Blanch to describe the principal dialectal manifestations of Spanish in Mexico. The author insists that they are not working toward a linguistic atlas, although initially they may have envisioned this. What they have done is describe the Spanish of some 190 communities in the Republic in an attempt to define dialect zones. Several investigators have participated: Gloria Ruiz, Raúl Ávila, Beatriz Garza, Teresa Piñeros, among others. Sample maps show the occurrence of certain phenomena, and at the end of the article he lists the places visited so far, with indications of those that are not complete, as far as the encuesta is concerned». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 38:6092 (1976).

22. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «La sociolingüística y la dialectología hispánica», in 1975 Colloquium on Hispanic Linguistics, edited by Aid, Frances M., Melvyn C. Resnick, and Bohdan Saciuk, Washington, D. C.: Georgetown Univ. Press, 1976, 67-90.

«Juan M. Lope Blanch... tackles the relationship between sociolinguistics and dialectology and the ways in which the former may complement the latter, especially in his Mexican dialect research. L. B. offers a useful survey of the issue, showing familiarity with relevant research from the earlier contributions of Menéndez Pidal, Dauzat, and Jaberg to more recent probings by Fishman, Haugen, and Labov. He admits humorously, that, like a new Monsieur Jourdain, one can be engaged in sociolinguistics, believing one is working in dialectology, citing his own research experience (79). In concluding L. B. draws an interesting distinction between the need for a more strictly sociolinguistic orientation in the study of U. S. Spanish as opposed to a basically dialectological slant for studying the state of affairs in Mexico, where an excess of sociological considerations could complicate the work (82)». -As rev. by Ralph de Gorog in RPh, 36 (1982-83), 244-45.

23. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Geografía y sociología lingüística en México», in XIV Congresso Internazionale di Linguistica e Filología Romanza, Napoli (1974). G. Macchiarola, ed. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1978, 207-20.

This is a shorter version of L. B.'s «Dialectología mexicana y sociolingüística». (See entry 21).

24. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Delimitación de las zonas dialectales de México: Objetivos y problemas», Hisp, 58 (1975), 127-31.

Another situation report on the dialect study begun in 1966 by the Seminario de Lingüística de El Colegio de México.

25. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «La investigación del español en México y en el suroeste de los Estados   —252→   Unidos: Posibilidades de aproximación», in Bilingualism and Language Contact: Spanish, English, and Native American Language. Jacob Ornstein-Galicia, ed. New York: Teachers College Press, 1982, 18-25.

26. Luca de Tena, Torcuato, «El español en México», BAHL, 24 (1982), 238-41.

27. Moreno de Alba, José G. «El español de América y el español de México», RUY, 17: 102 (nov. /dic. 1975), 12-33.

«Dwells on popular misconceptions regarding differences that exist among various dialects of Spanish, but he goes back to sources of some 40 years ago for statements on dialect zones of American Spanish. Descriptions of pronunciation differences are vague or inaccurate at times». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 40:6053 (1978).

28. Ordóñez Sabido, Raúl. Reflexiones de un lingüista inconforme. México: B. Costa-Amic Editor, 1977, 107 pp.

This little volume of reflections on the Spanish spoken in Mexico is of little value for the professional linguist.

«Although the writer's attitude is normative and he decries the vast influence of English on modern Spanish, his examples are very good and reveal the extremes of sense loans in languages in contact. As examples of "contaminación ambiental" he offers such Spanish phrases as "en las rocas", "cruceros por el Caribe", firmas (firms), retirarse (to retire), and even hijo de perra». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 44: 4606 (1982).

IV. Phonetics, Phonology, Entonation

29. Ávila, Raúl. «Realizaciones tensas de «s» en la ciudad de México», AnLet, 11 (1973), 235-39. Bibl. Tables.

In this note the author documents the frequency of the tense /s/ after a pause, after /n/, and after /l/. The author concedes that more work is needed to find a substratum influence at work.

30. Ávila, Raúl. «Problemas de fonología dialectal», NRFH, 23 (1974), 369-81.

This article is of a general nature but might be of interest for Mexican-Spanish studies since the author suggests that «existe un fonema /s/ en las ciudades de Quito y México, por lo general en voces indígenas integradas al léxico español. El fonema es muy poco frecuento y, por lo mismo, es difícil encontrar parejas mínimas que muestran su valor diferencial».

31. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge Gustavo. «Rasgos fundamentales del vocalismo culto del habla de la ciudad de México», ACIEA-I, 1982 (en prensa).

32. Godínez, Manuel Jr. «An Acoustic Study of Mexican and Brazilian Portuguese Vowels», Hisp, 64 (1981), 594-600.

In the Introduction Godínez laments what he considers to be the questionable basis of the «tongue arching model of vowel production» which still maintains a prominent position in many contemporary phonetic-phonological studies. He then reviews earlier attempts to apply spectrographic analysis to Luso-Hispanic vowels. He then discusses the results of his own ongoing investigation of the vowels of the Romance languages with particular emphasis on the recorded data of the Spanish of six speakers from Tijuana. -Also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 44: 4556 (1982).

33. Kvavik, Karen H. «An Analysis of Sentence-Initial and Final Intonation Data in Two Spanish Dialects», JPhon, 2 (1974), 351-61. (This is a revised version of «Syntactic Boundaries and Voice Register in Two Dialects of Spanish» presented at the MLA in Chicago, 1973. The data are from an on-going acoustic project on Castilian, Mexican, and Argentinian intonation in collaboration with Professor Carroll L. Olsen, University of Toronto).

Acoustic data on sentence-initial and final intonations in two dialects of Spanish are presented in this paper; the physical measurements are correlated with a perceptual analysis of informants intonations. The resulting descriptive information obtained from conversational style of Mexican and Castilian informants is contrasted with established research on Spanish intonation based primarily on a reading style.

34. Kvavik, Karen H. «Sense-Group Terminations in Mexican Spanish», in Studies in Honor of Lloyd A. Kasten. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, (1975), 101-15.

35. Kvavik, Karen H. «Research and pedagogical materials on Spanish intonation: a re-examination», Hisp, 59 (1976), 406-17. illus. tables.

«Excellent examination of research that has been done on a little-understood aspect of Spanish phonology-intonation. Considers major studies   —253→   of Spanish intonation that are now sources for pedagogical application, beginning with Tomás Navarro's Manual de entonación, which is based on "literary" or reading style of Castilian speakers, then efforts of Stockwell and Bowen, Cárdenas, Dalbor, Hadlich, Holton and Montes, Delattre, Matluck. Kvavik regrets that some of these studies show pitch curves but no frequency information; and she compiles new data from recordings of four male Spaniards and four male Mexicans. Although there isn't too much difference two groups in conversation style, in reading the Spaniard has a much lower final tone, and Mexican's terminal styles are complex». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 40: 6019 (1978).

36. Kvavik, Karen H. «An interpretation of cadences in Mexican Spanish», in Colloquium on Spanish and Luso-Brazilian Linguistics. James P. Lantolf, Francine Wattman Frank, and Jorge M. Guitart, eds. Washington D. C.: Georgetown Univ. Press, 1979, 37-47.

This paper is based on previous research (see preceding entries) and presents data on sense-group cadences in Mexican Spanish and their function in connected discourse. The cadences described are simple (unidirectional) or complex (circumflex, fall-rise, terraced, or downstepped). A number of factors influencing the cadence interpretations are discussed. -Also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 44: 4519 (1982).

37. Kvavik, Karen H. «Las unidades melódicas en el español mexicano», in DHEA, 1980, 48-57.

Yet another paper on the intonational forms of Mexican Spanish by [K. K.] presenting data inventorying intonation patterns verified by acoustic methods.

«Karen H. Kvavik ... analyzes by computer 600 melodic groups in the speech of three natives of Mexico City to ascertain the intonational patterns of Mexican Spanish. A history of research in the area is presented, with critical reference to T. Navarro Tomás's broad-gauged Manual de entonación española (México, 1966) and the specifically Mexican studies by Wallis, King, and Matluck. From her data, K. infers that there are three types of units: (1) simple and complex groups with the change in pitch at the end of the sentence, recalling T.N.T.s sintomenas; (2) the complex form, with the stress pulled back from the end of the utterance (example: "Las casas son bonitas", which follows the patterns /1211/or /1221/); and (3) miscellaneous groups composed of various sintonemas involving such intonations as circumflex + circumflex, circumflex + rising circumflex, and circumflex + sudden rise, as in "se bebe mucho incluse los niños". K. concludes that Mexican colloquial data show a complexity and diversity of patterns hitherto unobserved. The paper lends itself to oral delivery more readily because of the disadvantage involved in presenting intonation patterns graphically; one thinks of the useful phonograph recordings T.N.T. made for the linguaphone Institute to illustrate the sounds and intonation patterns discussed in his Manual de pronunciación española (N.Y.: Hafner Publ. Co., n. d.)» -As rev. by Ralph de Gorog in RPh., 36 (1982-83), 249-49.

38. Kvavik, Karen H. «Spanish Multiaccent Intonations and Discourse Functions», CRRL, 1981, 46-62.

This paper provides a description of intonations with several pitch accents and elaborates their discourse function in Mexican and Castilian Spanish. [K. K.] finds it evident «that the Mexicans use more circumflexes than the Castilians, observations which coincide with Navarro's impressions. However, it is not just a matter of quantity, but also that the Mexicans use multipeak intonations consistently to mark discourse boundaries». (p. 59).

39. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Sobre el tratamiento de -e, -o finales en el español de México», StCL, 24 (1971), 577-81. (Inv. dial mex., 1979, 34-40).

«Queda claramente demostrado que el cierre de las mencionadas vocales in posición átona final de palabra responde a un principio de fonética general (la disminución de la tensión articulatoria al final de una palabra o de un grupo fónico) en el que influye otra cuestión propia de la teoría de la comunicación (la reducida cantidad de información que se produce en español en el final de una palabra, a causa de la gran redundancia que existe en nuestra lengua). Este cierre de -e, -o finales resulta favorecido si son el núcleo silábico de una consonante palatal prenuclear». -A. Quilis in RFE, 61, (1981), 263-5.

40. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Algunos casos de polimorfismo fonético en México. (Consideraciones geo- y sociolingüísticas)», RDTP, 32 (1976), 247-62. (Inv. dial. mex., 1979, 17-33).

«Se estudian las realizaciones de los cuatro fonemas /e, r, y, f/ en las hablas de los estados de Tabasco, Campeche y Yucatán, en el Sureste del País».-A. Quilis in RFE, 61 (1981), 263-5.

41. Lope Blanch Juan M. «Polimorfismo canario   —254→   y polimorfismo mexicano», in I Simposio Internacional de Lengua Española (1978). Coordinador: Manuel Alvar. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Ediciones del Excelentísimo Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1981, 275-88.

After a brief review of Alvar's work on Canary Islands Spanish [L. B.] launches into a review of the abundant testimony in Mexican Spanish for phonetic polymorphism, both in the collective and individual dialect. He concludes: «En resumen: La observación pormenorizada del polimorfismo mexicano en los casos de [r] y [s] revela la complejidad del fenómeno, la variedad de sus posibilidades, la relatividad de sus resultados. La visión global de los hechos en su síntesis total muestra que, en estos dos casos, el polimorfismo es ligeramente superior en el habla popular que en la culta, cosa que coincide, en sus líneas fundamentales, con la tesis expuesta tan racionalmente por Manuel Alvar». (pp. 286-87).

42. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «En torno al polimorfismo», ACIH-V, 1977 (1978), 593-601. (Also found as Introduction to L. B.'s Inv. dial. mex. 1979, 746)

«Examinadas las principales teorías elaboradas sobre este problema, el autor piensa que dada la última relación entre la naturaleza dinámica de la lengua y la multisecularidad del cambio lingüístico es necesario admitir que en toda lengua se produce un estado normal, más o menos desarrollado, de polimorfismo, que se manifiesta tanto en los aspectos fonológico y morfosintáctico, como lexicosemántico». -A. Quilis in RFE, 61, (1981), 263-65.

43. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Grados del polimorfismo lingüístico», in Estudios en memoria de Gaston Carrillo-Herrera. Ludwig Schrader, ed. Bonn: Leopoldo Sáez-Godoy, 1983, 105-09.

44. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «La información fonética en los atlas lingüísticos», in Actas del XVI Congreso Internacional de Lingüística y Filología Románicas, Palma de Mallorca.

45. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «La labiodental sonora en el español de México», NRFH, 36 (1988), 153-70.

[L. B.] examines the «sporadic» pronunciation of a labiodental /v/ in Mexico. Although Menéndez-Pidal (among others) declared that v was never pronounced natively as labiodental -always as a fricative [L. B.] notes that Amado Alonso (1955) found that the distinction bilabial /b/ and labiodental /v/ was maintained in wide areas of Spain and Hispanic world well into the 16th century and particularly in Southern Spain, not to mention Judeoespañol. And remains of a labiodental /v/ are found all over in 20th century Spanish. Although it is no doubt true that the b/v opposition was brought to the new world and there can be no denial of the adstratum influence of labiodental /v/ under influence of English in Chicano and border Spanish (as well as French/Catalan labiodental adstratum influence in bilingual areas of Spain) -only «sporadic» evidence of labiodental /v/ has been found in Mexico by researchers for the ALM (Atlas Lingüístico de México). [L. B.] attributes what labiodental /v/ that exists to well-meaning teachers and pedantic style: «Pienso, en conclusión, que en el español de México sólo se hallen testimonios de la llamada /v/ pedante, ultracorrecta o afectada, que aparece casi exclusivamente en elocuciones formales o en el habla enfática....» (p. 169).

46. López Chávez, Juan. «/S/, /C/ y /X/ intervocálicas en la República mexicana», in ACIEA-II (1986), 27-29.

«Con base en datos recogidos para el Atlas de Méjico compara las realizaciones de los tres fonemas y señala los desplazamientos compensatorios que sufren en su articulación, esto es, que si por ejemplo la ch avanza hacia la africada alveolar o labiodental será menor la tendencia a dentalizar la s (intervocálica) corresponde uno bajo de aspiración de /X/». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), pp. 761-62.

47. Moreno de Alba, José G. «Frecuencias de la asibilación de /r/ y /rr/ en México», NRFH, 21 (1972), 363-70. Tables. Maps.

The author finds the phenomenon of the assibilation of the /r/ /rr/ to be less frequent on the national level than in the capital which is a «foco irradiador» of this primarily feminine phonetic development.

48. Perissinotto, Giorgio. «Distribución demográfica de la asibilación de vibrantes en el habla de la ciudad de México», NRFH, 21 (1972), 71-79.

The author studies the sociolinguistics of the existence of a fricative assibilant of the [r] in Mexico City and finds the surprising result that women, who have traditionally been considered linguistically conservative, tend to use the assibilant variant much more than do men.


49. Perissinotto, Giorgio. Fonología del español hablado en la ciudad de México: Ensayo de un método sociolingüístico. Trans. by Raúl Ávila. México: El Colegio de México, 1975. 134pp.

This study (based on a Columbia Univ. dissert; 1971) is divided into two parts: Part I is a description of the phonology of Mexico City Spanish as spoken by 110 informants. Part III is an analysis of six distinctive features of Mexico City speech according to the informants' sex, age-group, and socioeconomic status: 1) syneresis versus hiatus; 2) neutralization of voiced and voiceless final stops; 3) voicing of /s/ before a voiced consonant; 4) bilabial [b] versus [f]; 5) assibilation of simple /r/ before a pause; and 6) of multiple /r/ in all positions. Very useful study. -Rev. by J.M. Sharp in Hisp, 60 (1977), 409; N. Cartagena in VR, 37 (1978), 327-32; M. Torreblanco in RPh, 33 (1979-80), 201-05; Also extensively annot. by Canfield in HLAS 42:4572 (1980).

V. Grammar, Morphology, Word Formation, Syntax

50. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «En torno al problema de la condicionalidad», ALFAL-IV, (1978), 155-63.

51. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «Entre lo condicional y el texto repetido», AnLet, 17 (1979), 267-71.

This study looks at independent sentences introduced by which are not genuine conditionals, -Él, si tu sabes, es autodidacta and finds three predominant characteristics: «a) su escasa frecuencia de aparición, b) usan un escaso número de verbos, c) su función predominante puede ser fática (de cortesía o de inclusión del oyente en el mensaje) o de expresión de la duda».

52. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «Condicionales interrogativas en el español de México», AnLet, 19 (1981), 261-70.

[A. A.] describes the structure of conditional interrogative sentences as used by educated speakers in Mexico City. These forms are rare -of 2000 conditionals studied only 57 were of the interrogative form such as; «Y si lo ven, ¿cómo se sale?»

53. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «Oraciones condicionales «incompletas» en el español de México», AnLet, 20 (1982), 345-54.

This study describes the structure of incomplete conditional sentences in educated Mexican Spanish. Incomplete conditionals are those which follow the common pattern («si + verb + verb») but which omit one or both verbs, or lack the conditional element.

54. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «Oraciones condicionales introducidos por «cuando» en el español culto de la ciudad de México», AnLet, 21 (1983), 201-10.

[A. A.] studies conditional sentences using cuando in the cultured speech of Mexico City. Normally cuando introduces temporal clauses, but the author's focus is on those cases in which the temporal and conditional values are both present and cuando may alternate with si.

«Spin-off of Proyecto de estudio coordinado... directed by J. M. Lope Blanch of Mexico (see HLAS 42: 4537). Often two values are present in subordinate clauses introduced by cuando: conditional and temporal with informants alternating between si and cuando. "Llovía cuando nos conocimos" is purely temporal, but "Cuando hayas hecho lo que te mandé, entonces hablamos", is both conditional and temporal or either. Material collected in Mexico City includes 248 cases of conditional-temporal structures. Also traces structure back to early Romance manifestations». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 48: 4519 (1986)

55. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. -«Tipos de condicionales», ALFAL-V (en prensa, 1981).

56. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «Oraciones condicionales copulativas en el español de México», ALFAL-VI, (en prensa, 1981).

57. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «Condicionales con que en el español culto de México», ACIEA-I, (en prensa, 1982).

58. Arjona, Marina. «Anomalías en el uso de la proposición «de» en el español de México, AnLet, 16 (1978), 67-90. Bibl. Tables. (An extract of this study is also published in Actas del V Congreso de la Asociación de Filología y Lingüística de América Latina under the title «Ausencia y presencia de la preposición de en el español de México»).

The author studies 42 informants in three generational classes taken from El habla de la ciudad de México. Materiales para su estudio (UNAM, 1970) to establish the frequency of use contrary to the academic norm of the preposition de and concludes that suppression of de is much more common than its unnecessary use.

59. Arjona, Marina. «Usos anómalos de la preposición «de» en el habla popular mexicana», AnLet,   —256→   17 (1979), 167-84. Bibl. Tables.

[M.A.] attempts to establish the frequency of the non-normal use of the preposition de in popular Mexican speech, as she did for cultured Mexican speech: AnLet, 16 (1978), 69-92. As in cultured Mexican speech, the popular spoken language deletes de more often than it adds the preposition. Popular speech leaves out de with double the frequency of educated speech; and «dequeísmo» the unnecessary use of de is nine times more frequent in popular speech.

60. Arjona, Marina. «El infinito sujeto en el habla popular mexicana», AnLet, 18 (1980), 255-67. Bibl.

The principle objective of this study is the description of the different cases in which the infinitive may appear as a subject, and also to compare the usage of the subject infinitive phrase in popular speech and in the educated speech of Mexico city.

61. Arjona, Marina. «El infinitivo final en el habla popular de México», AnLet, 19 (1981), 251-59. Tables.

This exercise attempts to demonstrate some peculiarities of the syntax of final infinitive phrases in popular Mexican speech. The most interesting feature is a number of examples in which the subject of the main clause and the subordinate clause do not agree.

62. Arjona Iglesias, Marina and Elizabeth Luna Traill. «El infinitivo absoluto en el habla de la ciudad de México», ALFAL-VI, (en prensa, 1981).

63. Beniers, Elizabeth. «Sufijos del español de México», ACIEA-II, (1986), 378-85.

«Lista de sufijos que aparecen en el Diccionario del español de México (DEM) con ejemplificación pero clasificados desde el punto de vista puramente formal, puesto que se incluyen bajo la misma entrada sufijos muy diferentes por el sentido e incluso algunos elementos que no son sufijos: cantido, desmentido, vestido, vietnamita, princesita, bajo -ido, ita, etc. Se compara la frecuencia de algunos sufijos en el DEM con la correspondiente del DRAE». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), p. 763.

64. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge G. «Peculiaridades en el empleo del pronombre personal «yo» en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», AnLet, 14 (1976), 233-37. Charts.

A detailed study of the use of the personal pronoun «yo». The first case is the use of «yo» for emphasis which accounts for 66% of its occurrence and it seems to predominate with verbs of knowledge. The second case (34%) in which the «yo» is found is in those examples in which the verb lacks specific verb marking for person as with the imperfect tense and also the impersonal verb forms such as the infinitive, gerund, and participle. -Also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 42: 4524 (1980).

65. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge G. «Observaciones sobre la expresión innecesaria de los pronombres personales sujeto en el español de México», AnLet, 16 (1978), 261-64. Bibl.

In this note the author observes that in the 305 cases in which Mexican Spanish uses the personal subject pronouns, not all cases are obligatory. Non obligatory use of the subject pronouns is found with 1) accumulation of words such as también before the verb; 2) presence of affirmative or negative adverbs; 3) combination of the pronominal expression with verbs of intellectual perception; and 4) in combination with imperative forms.

66. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge G. «Usos y significados de la forma pronominal /se/ en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», ALFAL-IV, 1978, 250-58.

A study of 2,832 examples of /se/ use by educated Mexico City Spanish speakers. Function of /se/ divided into two groups: pronominal and nonpronominal use. Pronominal use of /se/ accounts for 37% of examples with /se/ in reflexive constructions constituting 1/3 of all /se/ use. Of the various kinds of nonpronominal use, impersonal /se/ accounts for 42% of the total.

67. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge G. «Casos de leísmo en México», AnLet, 17 (1979), 305-08.

In this note [C.S.] examines leísmo in Mexico City finding le used as direct object in 2.9% of the cases studied. The impersonal use of se favors le forms: «se les educa». Le is used with certain verbs: ayudar, corresponder, and entender. [C. S.] finds le to be the prestige form under the influence of Castilian Spanish and attributes spread of leísmo to radio and television.

68. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge G. «Tipos de expresión obligatoria de los pronombres personales sujeto en español», ALFAL-V, (en prensa, 1981).


69. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge G. «Uso de los posesivos en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», ALFAL-VI (en prensa, 1981).

70. Cantero Sandoval, Jorge G. Sintaxis de los pronombres personales en el habla culta de la ciudad de México. México, (en prensa).

71. Dulme, Erika Ehnis. «El uso de la preposición a ante objeto directo en el habla popular de la ciudad de México», ACIEA-II (1986), 404-07.

«Observa la poca claridad que hay en las gramáticas sobre el uso de a ante complemento directo y con base en materiales grabados en el Centro de Lingüística Hispánica de la UNAM sobre habla popular examina la situación al respecto en Ciudad de Méjico. Halla que casi la única regla de validez total en el habla popular es la de a ante nombre propio de persona, que el uso u omisión de la a depende también del verbo que se use y que hay contraste notorio entre el habla popular que omite en muchos casos la prep., y la culta que tiende a abusar de ella». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. (1987), p. 764.

72. Graciela Montes, Rosa. «Aspectos semánticos de la preposición "hasta" en el español de México», ACIEA-II (1986), 423-31.

«Hace una somera revisión de los pronunciamientos de la gramática acerca de los usos de hasta, se refiere a algunos tratamientos del problema similar de until en inglés, ejemplifica los usos mejicanos de hasta (que en general son también bogotanos a excepción del uso espacial, «Y ahora, ¿qué hace la Combi hasta allá abajo?», analiza los valores durativo, puntual, positivo y negativo de construcciones con hasta y concluye que «este trabajo es un paso necesario en el proceso de análisis». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), p. 765.

73. Herrera Lima, María Eugenia. «Sobre las oraciones modales comparativas introducidas por como en el habla popular de la ciudad de México», ALFAL-VII, 1987, I: 535-47.

74. Hett Chauvet, Denise. «Estudios sobre la subordinación final en la norma lingüística culta del español de México», México: UNAM, 84 pp. (inédito).

75. Lastra de Suárez, Yolanda. «Los pronombres de tratamiento en la ciudad de México», AnLet, 10 (1972), 213-17.

This study has as its object to relate the pronouns of address ( and usted) with the age and the social class of the speakers. «En conclusión podemos decir que el tratamiento asimétrico va disminuyendo en la ciudad de México. El uso recíproco de va en aumento, sobre todo dentro de la familia, pero también fuera de ella, ya que se emplea inclusive para dirigirse a maestros y sacerdotes». (p. 215).

76. Levy, Paulette. «Una peculiar oposición entre «le» y «lo» en el español de México», AnLet, 18 (1980), 263-68.

[P. L.] discusses a subgroup of roughly 100 verbs (out of 5000 from the Corpus of contemporary Mexican Spanish) which alternate le and lo for the dative object pronoun. She suggests that the alternation of le and lo corresponds to an aspectual difference of the nature: 1) A. F. le molestaban los niños and 2) A.F. lo molestaban los niños.

77. Levy, Paulette. Las completivas objeto en español. Estudio distribucional. México: El Colegio de México, 1983, ?? pp.

78. Líbano Zumalacárregui, Ángeles. «Notas morfosintácticas sobre el español de México», LdD, V. 15 No. 31 (Jan-Apr, 1985), 97-124.

This article relies on research done by P. Boyd-Bowman, Daniel Cárdenas, and Charles Kany in the sixties. Since the most recent bibliographical entry is Lope Blanch (1972) it leaves out the large amount of data on Mexican morphology and syntax published over the last decade.

79. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «La reducción del paradigma verbal en el español de México», in Actas del IX Congreso Internacional de Lingüística y Filología Románica (1965), Madrid, 1970, 1791-1808. (Est. esp. mex., 1972, 141-55; 1983, 145-59).

80. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «La estructura del habla culta en Puerto Rico y en México», Boletín de Filología (Homenaje a Ambrosio Rabanales), Santiago, 31/2 (1980-81), 907-15.

81. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «La estructura del habla en cuatro ciudades de Hispanoamérica», II Simposio Internacional de Lengua Española, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, España, 1984.

82. Lope Blanch. Juan M. «Complementos y oraciones complementarias en el habla culta de México». ALFAL-VI, (en prensa, 1981).


83. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Habla culta y habla popular en la ciudad de México», Coloquio sobre Problemas sociolingüísticos en Hispanoamérica. (Cornell University), México, 1984, ?? pp.

84. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Anomalías en el habla popular de México», in Homenaje a Ana María Barrenechea. Lía Schwartz Lerner and Isaías Lerner, eds.; Jorge Guillén, ded. Madrid: Castalia, 1984, 99-103.

[L. B.] reviews his previous analysis of oral and literary Mexican expression in which he found habla culta to vary syntactically from habla popular. He notes that while the average of oraciones gramaticales integrantes de cada cláusula was practically the same from literary language (3.5) to habla culta (3.4), it drops to only 2.1 per clause in habla popular. And the averages of voces constitutivas de cada oración drops from 7 (literary and cultured speech) to 5 in popular speech. In the present study [L. B.] shows the results of his study of muletillas (filler words which give the speaker time to organize his or her thoughts) from data taken from the El habla popular de la ciudad de México. Materiales para su estudio (1976). He finds that the high frequency of muletillas or bordones reduces even further the average of 5 voces constitutivas for popular speech. The most frequent filler words are: (1)Pues, en sus diversas realizaciones fonéticas: pues, pos, pus, in 188 occasions; (2) Este, (152); (3) Entonces, (40), bueno, (38); (4) ¿verdad?, (26), ¿entiende?, (18); (5) Decir: digamos, (14), digo, (14), ya le digo, (6), etc.; (6) fíjese, fíjese usted, fíjate que, (16); mire or mira, (S). He concludes: «La acumulación de estas muletillas reduce drásticamente el promedio de palabras conceptuales constitutivas de la oración popular». (p. 102).

85. Luna Traill, Elizabeth. «Observaciones sobre el infinitivo final en el español mexicano», AnLet, 8 (1970), 57-79. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 181-99).

In this essentially descriptive work the author analyzes some of the more peculiar characteristics of infinitive-final constructions. This is part of a larger study of the syntax of the absolute infinitive in the spoken Spanish of Mexico City.

«Statistical report on the infinitive as object, especially of prepositions, with some interesting Cuadros de porcentajes». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 34: 3136 (1972).

86. LunaTraill, Elizabeth G. Sintaxis del infinitivo absoluto en el español hablado en la ciudad de México. Tesis. UNAM, 1971, 305 pp.

87. Luna Traill, Elizabeth, «Sobre la sintaxis de los pronombres átonos en construcciones de infinitivo», AnLet, 10 (1972), 191-200. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 105-13).

In this short article the author does a statistical study of the atonic pronouns which accompany infinitive absolute constructions in the educated speech of Mexico City.

88. Luna Traill, Elizabeth. «Notas sobre el infinitivo absoluto en el español mexicano», in ALFAL-III, 1976, 189-200. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 169-80). 83.

89. Luna Traill, Elizabeth. «Perífrasis de gerundio en el habla culta de Ciudad de México», in ALFAL-IV, 1978, 401-9. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 201-08).

The object of this brief work is to do a simple count of the verbal gerund constructions with estar, ir, venir, and seguir in the cultivated speech of the Mexican capital. Of the 439 cases, 61.5% are of estar+ gerund. [L. T.] notes that 314 of the 439 examples of use of gerundial periphrasis are in the present tense and finds that there are very few interpolations between the auxiliary and the gerund as in the sentence «Va uno estableciendo una amistad».

90. Luna Traill, Elizabeth. Sintaxis de los verboides en el habla culta de la ciudad de México. México: UNAM, 1980, 246 pp.

[L. T.] studies in detail the verboids: infinitives, gerunds, and participles as they are used in the cultured speech of Mexico City. The work is divided into two parts: I. Constructions with verboids; and II. Verbal periphrastics. «Debo decir, por último, que este libro contiene un excelente trabajo de descripción, convenientemente apuntado por consideraciones teóricas coherentes acerca de los verboides, y que es, en fin, una valiosa contribución al Proyecto de estudio coordinado de la norma lingüística culta de las principales ciudades de Iberoamérica y de la Península Ibérica y al conocimiento del español mexicano». -As rev. by Marina Arjona in AnLet, 19 (1981), 350-56; also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 46: 4543 (1984).

91. Luna Traill, Elizabeth. «Las perífrasis modales en el español de México», ALFAL-V (en prensa, 1981).

92. Madero Kondrat, Maribel. «La gradación del   —259→   adjetivo en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», AnLet, 21 (1983), 71-118.

Author studies adjective gradation of educated speakers of Mexico City. Gradation is the intensification or the quantification of the content of an adjective. Adjectival gradation may be absolute using such forms as re, rete, requete, super-, archi-, ultra-, -ísimo, -érrimo, etc. or gradation may be relative or comparative. [M. M.] finds little evidence of redundant forms such as muy baratísimo in educated speech, but indicates a variety of regularly occurring alternate forms: librísimo libérrimo, pobrísimo paupérrimo, etc.

«Data obtained through 24 hours of recordings of 60 informants of Mexico City, representing three generations, and four types of interviews: single informant; a dialogue between two; formal talks; and secret recordings. Gradación is defined as the intensification or quantification of the quality or state indicated by the adjective. Adverbs that Spanish calls ponderativo seem to be popular with these informants: bastante, completamente, sumamente, totalmente, poco, and in this level of society there is a marked tendency to form superlatives in -ísimo, and Mexicans of the capital tend to prefer mejor, peor, mayor to más bueno, más malo, más grande». -As annot. by Canfleld in HLAS 48: 4539 (1986).

93. Magallanes, Dulce María «Oraciones independientes de gerundio en el español de México», AnLet, 8 (1970), 235-9. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 209-13).

Magallanes collects only those cases of gerundial prepositions which function as independent phrases, noting that 66% of the examples are the gerund used in historical narration, with other uses being in phrases of exclamatory or interrogative value.

«Study based on recorded dialogues of several people representing all age groups. Takes in cases of historical gerund; the independent, how frequent in conversation, and the modal». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 34: 3137 (1972).

94. Mendoza, José Francisco. «Sintaxis de los relativos en el habla popular de la ciudad de México», AnLet, 22 (1984), 65-77. Bibl. Tables.

This study looks at the use of relative pronouns in popular speech in Mexico City. Of the 1495 relatives, 91% were pronouns and 9% were adverbs. Of the relative pronouns que was used 90%; donde, cuando, quien, and cual made up the other 10%; and cuyo, cuanto, como were not attested at all.

95. Mendoza, José Francisco. «Todo. Su empleo en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», AnLet, 23 (1985), 255-61.

Study of the use of todo in the cultured speech of Mexico City. [J. F. M.] states that «la forma todo, clasificada tradicionalmente como pronombre indefinido cuantitativo, aparece en los materiales estudiados desempeñando funciones de carácter sustantivo y adjetivo, y formando parte de expresiones fijas y semifijas de diversa estructura y función. Ninguno de los usos documentados puede considerarse de tipo adverbial».

96. Millán Orozco, Antonio «Anomalías en la concordancia del nombre en el español de la ciudad de México», AnLet, 8 (1970), 125-46. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 85-104).

Author studies some anomalies in number, gender agreement. Most predominant is the use of nosotros for nosotras by women speaking about a group of themselves. Preference for uno instead of una is even more pronounced in Mexico City. Other phenomena studied include the tendency of all speakers to make gente-gentes agree in the masculine and plural with the referent group.

«Study of gender choices in the case of reference to a group of women by employing masculine plural: Muchas de nosotros, Nosotros las mujeres, and of cases of lack of agreement in number». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 34: 3139 (1972).

97. Moreno de Alba, José G. La expresión verbal de lo futuro en el español hablado en México. México: UNAM, 1970, 157 pp.

[M. de A.] extracts from the material everything enunciated which expresses by means of a verb in its various forms something of the future. The various verbal expressions of the future are classified as: periphrasis ir a + infinitive; present tense used to indicate future; preterite; future; etc. He concludes: «En las conclusiones destaca la preponderancia de ir a + inf. como expresión, la decadencia de la forma en -ré y su uso relativamente frecuente con valor modal, la mínima vigencia del antefuturo de indicativo que no apareció una sola vez en los materiales y la desaparición prácticamente total del futuro del subjuntivo en la ciudad de México... y contribuye a demostrar que, al menos en el sistema verbal, hay identidad fundamental en los usos y tendencias actuales en varios países hispanohablantes». -Rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes, 25 (1970), 489-90.


98. Moreno de Alba, José G. «Vitalidad del futuro de indicativo en la norma culta del español hablado en México», AnLet, 8 (1970), 81-102. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 129-46).

Author studies the use of the real future tense, the verbs in -Win the speech of Mexico. Out of 374 examples, 183 were cases of the indicative future in an independent clause. Speakers seem to prefer a periphrastic construction in independent clauses. In general, forms in - predominate over periphrasis in coordinate constructions, but in most other situations periphrasis or the substitution of the present tense wins out.

«Starting with contention of José J. Montes "Sobre la Categoría de Futuro en el Español de Colombia", in Thesaurus (17:3, sept/dic. 1962, p. 527-555) that the phrase ir a + infinitive is used more than the future in -, writer examines Mexican usage. Finds that phrase ir a is most common in the independent clause and in total picture, and even the present comes out ahead of the future». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 34: 3141 (1972).

99. Moreno de Alba, José G. «Frecuencias de formas verbales en el español hablado en México», AnLet, 10 (1972), 175-89. Bibl. Tables. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 115-28).

In this note the author presents some statistics about the frequency of verb forms in the educated speech of Mexico City. The present tense is used 51% of the time in spoken speech, but drops to 341/9 in writing. «En general tienen más «juego», más uso, los tiempos verbales en la lengua escrita que en la hablada». (p. 188).

100. Moreno de Alba, José G. «Transposiciones temporales y modales en las formas del indicativo», AnLet, 12 (1974), 205-19. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 147-60).

101. Moreno de Alba, José G. Valores de las formas verbales en el español de México. México: UNAM, 1978. 254 pp.

[M. de A.] presents a very complete study of the verb forms of educated Mexican Spanish. This useful book is divided into (1) El presente de indicativo, (2) Los pretéritos, (3) Los futuros, (4) Las formas verbales del subjuntivo, (5) Los verboides, (6) Tabla de correspondencias o posiciones estructurales del sistema verbal, and (7) Tabla de correspondencias con el cuestionario del PILEI. A short bibliography.

Rev. by T. Sandru Olteanu in StCL, 30 (1979), 394-95; and annot. by Canfield in HLAS 42: 4568 (1980).

102. Moreno de Alba, José G. «Algunas concurrencias entre el infinitivo y el subjuntivo en el español hablado en México», in ALFAL-III, 1976, 207-14. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 161-68).

103. Moreno de Alba, José G. «Neologismos nominales derivativos en el español mexicano», AnLet, 22 (1984), 47-64. Bibl. Tables. (ALFAL-V, en prensa, 1981).

Author concentrates on suffixed nouns and adjectives which do not appear in the DRAE but which are documented for Mexican Spanish in an attempt to find out why they are excluded from the DRAE. The conclusion is that it would be inconvenient to identify as neologisms all words which are documented in the spoken language.

104. Moreno de Alba, José G. «Observaciones sobre el uso del gerundio», Boletín de la Academia Mexicana correspondiente de la Española. (en prensa, 1981).

105. Ontañón de Lope, Paciencia. «Una nota sobre las morfemas diminutivos en el español de México», in Alvar-I, 1983, 499-505.

«[P. Ontañón de Lope] draws her material from the projected Atlas lingüístico de México, with interesting variations emerging regarding the lechón and the young of the goat, sheep or cow. She contrasts the countryman's knowledge with the ignorance about such matters touching young animals in Mexico City itself». -Douglas Gifford in YWMLS; 46 (1984), 419.

106. Páez Urdaneta, Iraset «Conversational pues in Spanish: A Process of Degrammaticalization?» in Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Historical Linguistics. Anders Ahlqvist, ed, Amsterdam, Benjamins, 1982, 332-40.

Mexican Spanish dialect

107. Palacios de Sámano, Margarita. Sintaxis de los relativos en el habla culta de la ciudad de México. México: UNAM, 1983, 80 pp.

This study is based on a 1979 UNAM thesis and refers to nonadverbial and adverbial relatives in the cultured speech of Mexico City. Study divided into Chapter I: Relatives with antecedents; II: Specific words; III: Expletives; IV Relatives without antecedents; and, V: Concurrence, coordination, juxtaposition, and depronominalization. Contains a good bibliography.

«Examines frequency of occurrence and choice   —261→   among possibilities of relatives que, cual, quien, cuyo, cuanto, donde, cuando, como in juxtaposition and coordination situations, in the speech of inhabitants of Mexico City. Finds that with choice of que, quien, cual, the Mexican uses que 95 percent of the time». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 48: 4547 (1986).

108. Palacios de Sámano, Margarita. «Observaciones sobre la sustantivación de oraciones adjetivas en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», ALFAL-VI, (en prensa, 1981).

109. Rojas Nieto, C. «Los nexos adversativos en la norma culta del español hablado en México», AnLet, 8 (1970), 103-24. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 215-33).

[R. N.] studies the adverse connectors in educated Mexican Spanish such as pero, sino, aunque, sin embargo, etc. which serve to establish a relationship between two statements in which one denies what is affirmed by the other. The opposition or adversative nexus may be restrictive or exclusive depending on whether the connector limits or completely rejects the one statement in favor of the other. Author draws no conclusions other than to illustrate with a chart that pero accounts for 2/3 of adverse connector use and that 3/4 of nexos adversativos are restrictive rather than exclusive.

«Study of conjunctions that denote a qualified or restrictive acceptance of the main statement: pero, aunque, sino que, que, sin embargo, etc. Restrictive connotation turns out to be biggest category». -As annot. by Cantield in TLAS 34: 3144 (1972).

110. Rojas Nieto, C. «Algunos aspectos de las construcciones coordinadas sindéticas en la norma culta del español hablado en México», AnLet, 10 (1972), 201-11. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 247-55).

Author investigates coordinate constructions that is, phrases of clauses of equal syntactic range which are linked by coordinating conjunctions.

111. Rojas Nieto, C. «Observaciones sobre el uso de los nexos coordinantes interoracionales en la norma culta del español hablado en México», in ALFAL-III, 1976, 215-26. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 235-46).

112. Rojas Nieto, C. «Coordinación con oraciones menores en el español culto de la ciudad de México», ALFAL-V (en prensa, 1981).

113. Rojas Nieto, C. Las construcciones coordinadas sindéticas en el español hablado culto de la ciudad de México. México: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, 1982, 271 pp. Bibl. (Publicaciones del Centro de Lingüística Hispánica; 16).

«Examines conjunctions y, ni, o, pero, sino in terms of parallel, "shared", and alternating situations. Very good bibliography». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 48: 4550 (1986); also rev. by Susan Plann in RPh., 39 (1985-86), 253-56.

114. Said, Sally E. S. «Variation in Usage of the Present Perfect Tense in the Spoken Spanish of Mexico City», Univ. of Texas at Austin dissert., 1976, 107 pp., DAI, 37 (1977), 5096A.

This study was undertaken to clarify present and preterite usage and to assess the degree to which the present perfect has assumed formerly all-preterite functions (the expression of past events with no connection to the grammatical present or of punctual events or ended opportunities).

115. Trujillo, Benjamín. «El presente de indicativo en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», Califa, 1 (1970), 33-45.

116. Vigueras Avila, Alejandra. «Sintaxis de los adverbios en «mente» en el habla culta de la ciudad de México», AnLet, 21 (1983), 119-45.

In this study of adverbs in -mente of cultivated Mexico City speech, Alejandra Vigueras divides use of -mente into ten functional classes-seven of which are based on the part of the sentence the adverb modifies and the remaining three in which adverbs serve as «pro-oraciones, nexos, o muletillas» -that is, adverbs which have absolutely no function in the sentence and could be eliminated syntactically.

«Departing from a morphological point of view, classifies results of interviews with 42 Mexico City inhabitants, recording of 17 and a halfhours, using questionnaire of Programa Interamericano de Lingüística y Enseñanza de Idiomas (PILEI). Syntactically, most common occurrence was function of modification of a whole clause, but adverbs that modify verbs were frequent, those that modify adjectives, less so. Semantically, adverbs that indicate gradation in assertions were much more numerous than those of emotional attitude. There were 50 cases of adverbs used that achieved absolutely no function. Evidently this class of society uses many more such modifiers than lower groups». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 48: 4558   —262→   (1986).

117. Warren, Isolde Jahnke. «Cohesion in Mexican Spanish Spoken Texts: Conjunction». Univ. of Colorado at Boulder dissert., 1987, 149 pp., DAI (1987), 48(5) 1217A

The purpose of this text-linguistic study is to examine the use of conjunction as a cohesive device in Mexican Spanish spoken texts. Data are found in El habla de la Ciudad de México, 1974. First comprehensive analysis of use of conjunction as a cohesive device in Spanish spoken texts. Findings reveal that cohesion through conjunctions is a fundamental characteristic of the spoken text.

118. Yoshida, Mitsuo. «El valor fundamental del se en el español de México», ACIEA-II (1986), 498-502.

«No logra convencer este análisis que pretende explicar el se con un enfoque puramente sintáctico formal y que concluye que «no existen tal se- signo de pasiva ni se- reflexivo» -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), pp. 767-68.

VI. Lexicography, Studies of Lexicology, Argot-Slang, Semantics

A. Dictionaries, Vocabularies, Word Lists

119. Diccionario jurídico mexicano, I. Prólogo de J. Carpizo. México: Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicos de la UNAM, 1983, 314 pp.

120. Diccionario fundamental del español de México. Comisión. Nacional para la Defensa del Idioma Español. Dirección de Luis Fernando Lara. México: El Colegio de México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982, 1985. 480 pp.

Introduced by section on orthography and proper terminology for tenses in Spanish, followed by list of verb paradigms and vocabulary itself. Latter seems almost encyclopedic, with multiple definitions and derived idioms and examples of usage. Even the preposition a has two examples: voy a Oaxaca, voy al cine. Two notable omissions are indigenous terms (one would expect much Náhuatl), and telecommunications vocabulary». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 48: 4528 (1986).

-Rev. by Klaus Zimmermann in Ibam, 7 no. 19-20 (1983), 118-20 and Ibam, 11 no. so (n. d.), 60-66; John M. Lipski in Hisp., 70 (1987), 297-98.

121. «El Diccionario del español de México», BAHL, 21 (1978), 167-69.

This review article summarizes the motivation for the DEM and contains copious quotes from [L. F. L]. The first DEM will have 30,000 entries and the corpus will be formed from spoken and written texts most representative of Mexican Spanish. In preparation of the DEM the authors have used 150 literary texts, 168 newspapers texts, 180 scientific texts, 102 technical texts, 18 political discourses, 12 religious texts, 30 texts representing the speech of Mexico City, 55 tape-recordings of conversations, and 215 texts of nonstandard language such as regional texts, anthropological documents, and texts of jargon and everyday conversation. «Se trata, evidentemente, de redefinir la lengua española desde el punto de vista de los mexicanos. Nos encontramos, pues, ante un proyecto cultural de cuyo alcance todavía es pronto para diagnosticar. Esperemos...»

122. García Hidalgo, María Isabel. «La formalización del analizador gramatical del DEM», in Inv. ling. lex. 1979. 87-155.

«Description of the computer program for automatic grammatical analysis used in the project of the Dictionary of Mexican Spanish». -Annot. by Zgusta, p. 152.

123. Guerrero Rubén. José Luis. «Diferencias léxicas entre el habla culta y la popular en la vida social de la ciudad de México», ACIEA-II (1986), 531-38.

«Basado en el cuestionario para el proyecto de Estudio del habla culta del que se seleccionaron algunas preguntas del campo vida social y distracciones que se formularon a 25 informantes de nivel culto y 18 de nivel popular se hace una comparación diastrática de la que resulta el notorio auge del anglicismo, más acusado en el nivel alto, la gran pobreza léxica en temas y significados y el influjo decisivo de los medios de comunicación en el cambio léxico». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), p. 769.

124. Ham Chande, Roberto. «Del 1 al 100 en lexicografía», in Inv. ling. lex., 1979, 43-83.

«Statistical investigation connected with the files of the Dictionary of Mexican Spanish. The most frequent words; the richness of the lexicon, et sim.» -Annot. by Zgusta, p. 101.

125. Investigaciones lingüísticas en lexicografía. Luis Fernando Lara, Roberto Ham Chande, María Isabel García Hidalgo. México: El Colegio de   —263→   México: Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios. (jornadas, 89), 1979, 266 pp., Bibl. Illus.

«Work first published in the Nueva Revista de Filologia Hispánica (No. 23, 1974, 245- 67). It is an excellent Spanish account of the problems that confront the lexicographer in "building" a dictionary, based on experience gained in the composition of the Diccionario del español de México (DEM). The problems are chiefly those associated with the ultimate goal of complete objectivity, and they are described as: a) the documents at the disposal of the lexicographer when the task is begun; b) the scientific value of these documents; c) the use that they can be put to for the task at hand; d) the collection of new data that will complement or take the place of that at hand. Using simple vocabulary items the writers show how complicated the matter of order and selection is. They use several pages, for instance, to illustrate how the lexeme cabeza would have to be accommodated». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 44606 (1982).

«Contains the following items: García Hidalgo, Ham Chande, Lara, Lara/Ham Chande; all 1979». Zgusta, 152.125.

126. Lara, Luis Fernando, and Roberto Ham Chande, «Base estadística del Diccionario del Español de México», NRFH, 23 (1974), 245-67. Also found in updated version in Inv. ling. lex, 1979, 7-39.

The authors discuss the statistical base for the project begun in 1973 to prepare the DEM: «En este artículo nos referimos a los problemas de la objetividad en la descripción del léxico mexicano, y al de la cantidad de datos necesaria para la labor lexicográfica. Particularmente nos ocupamos de la aplicación de la estadística lexicológica en la investigación del español de México como el mejor instrumento de documentación y análisis del vocabulario». (p. 246).

«Statistical considerations of the representation of the lexicon of different registers in relation to various other restricted languages, styles, and the standard language; based on the files of the Dictionary of Mexican Spanish». -Annot. by Zgusta, p. 151.

«Good look at the plans for a dictionary of Mexican Spanish. Under the direction of Lara, at the Colegio de México, a group of writers are collecting materials, evaluating lexicon and approaches of other lexicographers, and bringing in new items. There is to be insistence on frequency fists, such as the one used for the American Heritage Dictionary in 1969, and it is evident that the approach is to be statistical». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 38: 6140 (1976).

127. Lara, Luis Fernando. «Méthode en lexicographie: Valeur et modalité du dictionnaire de machine». Cahiers de Lexicologie, 29 (1976), 103-28.

«A detailed description of an automatic parsing system used in the Spanish Dictionary of Mexico project. The parsing program is based on dependence grammar. Rich discussion of the step-by-step decisions». -As annot. by Zgusta, p. 151.

128. Lara, Luis Fernando. El concepto de norma lingüística. México: El Colegio de México, 1976. (Publ. del Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios de El Colegio de México, Serie Estudios de lingüística y literatura, V). 148 pp.

This book analyses the difficulties which the concept of "norm" has presented in various linguistic theories, especially in the more recent structuralist and generative frameworks: Cap. I. «La palabra norma y sus sentidos»; Cap. II. «El concepto de norma en el estructuralismo hjelmsleviano»; Cap. III. «El concepto de norma en la teoría de Eugenio Coseriu»; Cap. IV. «La norma lingüística como modelo de corrección»; Cap. V. «Por un nuevo concepto de norma en lingüística». Bibliography.

129. Lara, Luis Fernando. «Del análisis semántico en lexicografía», in Inv. ling. lex., 1979, 159-266. «A critical survey of various approaches to semantic analysis, as practiced in lexicography: form (expression) and content, lexical field, feature analysis, etc.» -Annot. by Zgusta, p. 151.

130. Lara, Luis Fernando. «"Defensa del español...": ¿En qué sentido?» Diál, 18 no. 108 (nov-dic, 1982), 81-82.

In this Comentario [L. F. L.] discusses the Comisión Nacional para la Defensa del Idioma Español and rejects the simplistic notion that the Comisión exists to purify Mexican Spanish: «No hay que abundar mucho para darse cuenta del potencial reaccionario y xenófobo que encierra esta idea acerca de la Comisión del Español». [L. F. L.] finds the role of the Comisión to be to «...instrumentar una política del lenguaje que articule el cultivo de la lengua estándar con su raíz popular, que establezca las correcciones necesarias entre español y lenguas amerindias mexicanas, y que oriente la apertura y el enriquecimiento del español con la influencia de cuanta lengua extranjera sea necesaria para consolidar su   —264→   capacidad de comunicación en el campo de las ideas y los conocimientos científicos». (81-82).

131. Lara, Luis Fernando. «Activité normative, anglicismes et mots indigènes dans le Diccionario del español de México», in La Norme linguistique, Edith Bédard and Jacques Maurais, eds. Quebec, Conseil de la langue francaise, Paris, Le Robert, 1983, 571-601.

«The polysemy of the term "norm"; the norm in its relation to linguistic unity, to social and verbal activities, to national language. The norm and normative activities. Norms in Mexico: indigenous words, anglicisms. Decisions made in the compilation of the Diccionario del español de México». as Annot. by Zgusta, p. 151.

132. Lara, Luis Fernando. «El léxico del español de México ¿le es privativo a México?» ACIEA-II (1986), 566-70.

«A propósito de algunas reacciones provocadas por la obra Diccionario del español de México porque se cree que es el reconocimiento de una fragmentación idiomática o que contribuye a ella hace la comparación de algunos términos de la versión abreviada del DEM con el DRAE lo que muestra que las diferencias pueden deberse en parte a insuficiencias del DRAE. Concluye que una serie lexicografía regional sería valioso instrumento para saber de la unidad o fragmentación del léxico español». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), pp. 769-70.

133. Lara, Luis Fernando. «Methodology in a Non-Spanish Dictionary of the Spanish Language: The Diccionario del español de México», 11-28 in Ilson, Robert F. ed. A Spectrum of Lexicography. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1987.

«Problems of a regional dictionary of a language spoken in several countries, compiled with the purpose of a full description of each regional variety, particularly because of its social and cultural importance; and with the purpose of stopping the constant imposition of the metropolitan variety above the regional one. Definition of the region and of its diagnostic features. The collection of data; problems of the corpus of data. Rich examples of differences between the Dictionary of the Spanish Academy and the Dictionary of Mexican Spanish, with instructive analyses and commentaries». -As annot. by Zgusta, p. 15.

134. Lope Blanch, Juan M. Léxico del habla culta de la ciudad de México. (Publ. del Centro de Lingüística Hispánica 6) México: UNAM, 1978, 586 pp.

Dialectology and application of questionnaire. Contains a Prologue by [L. B.] and is divided into 21 lexical categories beginning with «El cuerpo humano». Serves as the data base for most of the studies of educated Mexico City speech listed in this bibliography. -Rev. by M. Sala in StCL, 33 (1982), 363-64.

135. Luna Traill, Elizabeth. «Aspectos léxicos del español de México», ACIEW, (en prensa, 1982).

136. Mejía Prieto, Jorge. Así habla el mexicano: diccionario básico de mexicanismos. México, D. F.: Panorama, 1984, 142 pp.

A ready reference source for many of the most basic Mexican words and idiomatic expressions. Entries arranged alphabetically and coded for the part of speech and origin. A solid bibliography of the most general Spanish and Mexican lexicons is appended. «A most attractive aspect of the reading is the occasional quotation of a noted literary figure or other pundit of Mexican culture. In one instance, a rather lengthy but entertaining definition of chingar is presented, replete with Octavio Paz's commentary on its many-faceted meanings» -Rev. by Ann C. Kelley in Lec, 3 (1984-85), 327-8. (See entries 157 and 181 for more comments on chingar).

137, Pallares, Eduardo. Diccionario de derecho Procesal civil. 6a. ed., corr. y aum., México: Porrúa, 1970, 877 pp.

138. Pina, Rafael de. Diccionario de derecho. 2a. ed., México: Porrúa, 1970, 355 pp.

139. Santamaría, Francisco J. Diccionario de mejicanismos. Razonado; comprobado con citas de autoridades; comprobado con el de americanismos y con los vocabularios provinciales de los más distinguidos diccionaristas hispanoamericanos. 2a, ed., corr. y aumentada, Méjico: Editorial Porrúa, 1974, 1207 pp.

«Attractive edition of the well-known vocabulary. Although it is claimed that it was revised by the author, the introduction is his speech of admission to the Mexican Academy in 1954 and although the supplement contains words added by the now-deceased author a partir de 1959, the bibliography does not contain any of the good vocabularies of the 1960s and 1970s». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 38: 6150 (1976).

B. Terminology Pertaining to Specialized Fields

140. Alcalá Alba, Antonio. «Los nombres de persona iniciados por A, en la ciudad de México», in ACEIA-II, (1986), 505-9.

«Consideraciones sobre la importancia cultural-histórica del nombre propio, los determinantes en la escogencia de éste (religiosos, ideológicos, etc.), noticias sobre preferencia en la nominación (nombres más usados) en Méjico desde la Conquista hasta la época actual y muestra (letra A) de un estudio en marcha con base en la lista telefónica que permite conclusiones sobre frecuencia de nombres, nombres compuestos, variantes ortográficas, etc.» -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes de Giraldo in Thes., 42 (1987), P. 768. (See P. Boyd-Bowman's article, entry 233).

141. Ávila, Raúl. «Léxico infantil de México: palabras, tipos, vocablos», ACIEA-II, (1986), 510-17.

«Partiendo del principio de que lo que el alumno ya sabe es factor decisivo en el aprendizaje, el proyecto sobre el que informa el autor se propone conocer el léxico efectivamente manejado por los escolares mejicanos. Se ha recolectado un corpus muy rico de textos de escolares que mediante un análisis por computador ha posibilitado una serie de conclusiones de tipo léxico-estadístico y también de carácter sociológico. El proyecto se orienta fundamentalmente a facilitar la confección de mejores textos escolares». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes de Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), p. 768.

142. Cardero, Ana María. «Vocabulario de la cinematografía en México», ACIEA-II (1986), 517-23.

«Informe sobre el proyecto de estudio del vocabulario cinematográfico que comprende dos etapas: la lexicográfica que se ocupa de un diccionario ya terminado con base en fuentes escritas, en grabaciones en los estudios de televisión y en informantes que ayudaron a revisar y completar el material; se anotan caracteres de la definición y la nomenclatura, los niveles de lengua, modo de organizar las entradas, etc.; en los lexicológicos se analizan aspectos del significado, el neologismo, las variantes dialectales, etc». -As rev. by José Joaquín Montes Giraldo in Thes. 42 (1987), p. 768.

143. Ferrer Rodríguez, Eulalio. El lenguaje de la publicidad en México. México: Ediciones Eufesa, 1966, 377 pp.

«Estudio sobre la lengua publicitaria en México. Recoge unas 5,000 frases de propaganda, nombres de marca y analiza la psicología de su uso y su divulgación». -Carlos A Solé, «Bibliografía del español de América: 1967-1971», AnLet, 10 (1972), 253-88, entry 203. Also rev. by Jetta Zahn in NRFH, 22 (1973), 131-32.

144. Franco Arias, Froilán. El vocabulario político de algunos periódicos de México D. F. desde 1930 hasta 1940. Madrid: Fundación Juan March, 1981, 44 pp. [Serie Universitaria, 148]. Introducción y Estudio de lexicología.

145. Glosario de términos sobre asentamientos humanos. México: Secretaría de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras Públicas, 1978, 175 pp., Biblio. (Colección de documentos básicos; 1).

«Very useful book, not only for vocabulary pertaining to centers for human habitation, but for account of how Mexico dealt with urban development. Categorizes inhabited localities as: ciudades, villas, pueblos, congregaciones, rancherías, haciendas, ranchos, colonias, agrícolas. Introduction gives account of work's planning». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 46: 4567 (1982).

146. Heath, Shirley Brice. La política del lenguaje en México; de la colonia a la nación. México: SEP-INI, 1972, 317 pp.

This work might possibly be of use for the history of the Spanish language in Mexico. We include it only because of the misleading title. «Un título más descriptivo para este interesante estudio hubiera sido: "la política de los gobiernos de México hacia las lenguas indígenas" y más que hacia las lenguas, hacia sus hablantes y su situación étnica, cultural y económica». -Luis Fernando Lara in NRFH, 21 (1972), 412-14; also rev. by Claudia Parodi in AnLet, 13 (1975), 317-20.

147. Martínez, Maximino. Catálogo de nombres vulgares y científicos de plantas mexicanas. México, D. F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica, c 1979, 1987. 1472 pp.

[M. M.] was head of the Dirección de Estudios Biológicos del Museo de Historia Natural and research worker at the Instituto de Biología de la UNAM. Established the Sociedad Botánica de México.

148. Past, Ray. «Border Golf», Hisp, 53 (1970), 475-77.

This note examines the terminology for the game of golf as gleaned from the author's direct experience at the Club Campestre, Juárez, México. Golf in Mexico takes much of its vocabulary from   —266→   English fergüey, juquiada, eslaiciada, berdi, bogui, etc.

149. Torres Villaseñor, Hermila E. «Léxico relativo al vestuario infantil», AnLet, 8 (1970), 241-53. Bibl. (Est. esp. prin. ciud, 1977, 281-91).

An investigation of the lexicon referring to infant clothing in present day use in Mexico City. Contains a useful index of 218 words describing the inner and outer baby clothes and the various swaddling clothing and «accoutrement» of the new born up to one year of age.

«Study undertaken as part of investigation of contemporary usage in Mexico, under direction of Juan Lope-Blanch. Two things stand out frequent diminutive and the Anglicism». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 34: 3174 (1972).

150. Vocabulario arquitectónico ilustrado Intro. de Pedro Moctezuma Días Infante. Pról. de Vicente Medel Martínez. México: Secretaría del Patrimonio Nacional. 1975. 539 pp. Bibl., illus., tables.

«Very good dictionary of architectural terms, profusely illustrated, with translations into French, English, German. It is interesting to note profusion of Arabic words in Spanish column, especially in the As. Bibliography is certainly up-to-date, and illustrations are nearly all from Mexico». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 40: 6078 (1978).

151. Vocabulario de la ciencia del suelo. México: Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos. Sub-secretaría de Operación. Dirección General de Distritos de Riego. Dirección de Estadística y Estudios Económicos, 1973, 40 pp.

«Arranged by categories within the general topic and with the order Spanish, definition in Spanish, English, French». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 38: 6143 (1976).

152. Waterhouse, Viola. «Mexican Spanish Nicknames», in Andrew González and David Thomas, eds., Linguistics Across Continents: Studies in Honor of Richard S. Pittman. Manila, Summer Inst. of Ling. (Philippines) and Ling. Soc. of Philippines, 1981, 19-23

[V. W.] begins by noting that the method of forming nicknames is different from English to Spanish. English prefers to form nicknames from the first syllable. Spanish (Mexican) forms nicknames from the last part of the proper name. [V. W.] then examines a variety of nicknames common in Mexico: 1) initially formed, 2) medially formed, and 3) finally formed. She concludes that «It is possible that the predominance of penultimate accent is largely responsible for the greater incidence of final type nicknames, but this does not explain why some names with similar accent have initial or medial types of nicknames rather than final types». (p. 23).

153. Zahn, Jetta M. Aspecte der nationalen Werbesprache in Mexiko. Tübingen: M. Niemeyer Verlag, 1974 306 pp. (Beih. zur ZRP, 142).

«The principle theme of the book (originally a doctoral thesis of the University of Heidelberg) is the linguistic analysis of the forms México, mexicano, and mex in the commercial slogans and names of products in Mexico as symbols of Mexican nationalism. Book is divided into two sections: one dedicated to commercial slogans and the other to formation with the affix mex as prefix (Mexhogar, Mexal), infix (Amexa, Promexport) and most frequently as a suffix (Bitumex, Pemex, Colmex, Lovemex). In both parts a diachronic study precedes the analysis of the materials. -Rev. by Luis Fernando Lara in NRFH, 25 (1976), 395-99; Hans Jürgen Wölf in ZRP, 93 (1977), 220-25.

C. Individual Word and Phrase Studies


154. Bustamente García, Jesús. «De tzictli a chicle y otras palabras relacionadas: Notas sobre la historia de un nahuatlismo», BRAE, 64 (1984), 171-87.

chichecano, chicano

155. Galván, Roberto A. «Chichecano, neologismo jergal», 53 (1970), 86-88.

This note is of primary interest for studies of Chicano Spanish, but the author does briefly survey the use of chiche, chichón, and the equivalent mamada, or mamar chiche in Mexican and general American Spanish as pejoratives for those who have sinecures or other means of making a living without working.

156. Galván, Roberto A. «Chicano, vocablo controvertido», Thes, 28 (1973), 111-17.

«The writer who had previously derived chicano from chichecano (Hisp, 53: 1, March 1970, p. 86) takes another look at the controversial term and concludes that it may be a combination of chi,   —267→   used by Hispanic children for urinate, and ca from cagar (to defecate), plus ano (annus)».-As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 36: 3812 (1974).

chingar, singar

157. Zamora, Juan Clemente, «Lexicología indianorrománica: chingar y singar», RomN, 14: 2 (1972), 1-5.

«Says that the ubiquitous Mexican chingar is from a nautical word originally probably Scandinavian, meaning to row with one oar».-As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 38: 6159 (1976). See also Usandizaga's El chingolés, entry 181 for the varieties of this colorful word.


158. Olstad, Charles. «Frito: An English Loan-Word in Mexican Spanish», Hisp, 53 (1970), 88-90.

The author examines the word «frito» and concludes that it was originally a Spanish word, but it was borrowed by American commercial interests and given a new meaning. Now it has found its way back into Spanish with a new meaning as an English loan-word.

159. Galván, Roberto A. «More on frito as an English loan-word in Mexican Spanish». Hisp. 54 (1971), 511-12.

«The author expands on Charles Olstad's article on frito (see preceding entry) to note other words such as rancho, cucaracha, and vainilla in which a word is introduced into English from Spanish; takes on a slightly different meaning and then is reintroduced into Spanish.


160. Zaid, Gabriel. «De grillos y de grilla», Vuelta, 4 no. 43 (jun., 1980), 47.

Author discusses grillos, but in the general Spanish context. Might be of interest for Mexican Spanish studies.


161. Perissinotto, Giorgio. «Spanish hombre Generic or Specific?», Hisp, 66 (1983), 581-86.

A psycholinguistic approach to the use of Spanish hombre in the dialect of Mexico City based on 140 informants of college and their reaction to hombre (generic or specific) used in term critical sentences (hidden in twenty-two sentences) of the nature: «Todo hombre tiene derecho de entrar en la república y salir de ella». Despite the clear generic intent of this sentence from the Mexican Constitution, 70 percent of informants reported hombre does not apply to women. Author suggests that there is a hierarchy of generics with hombre falling toward the specific end and that, given the constraints of gender markings in Spanish, Mexican Spanish is still very far from having true generics. -Also annot. by Canfield in HLAS 46: 4517 (1984).

162. Perissinotto, Giorgio. «Lingüística y sexismo», Diál., No. 104 (mar-abr, 1982), 30-34.

«This article of more popular interest is based on a paper «The Generic Masculine in Mexico City Spanish», California Linguistics Association Conference, California State University, Long Beach, March, 4, 1981.


163. Freeman, Marion F. «"La onda" and other youthful Mexican expressions», Hisp, 66 (1983), 260-61.

A short note about Mexican «preppy» slang such as ¿Qué onda(s)? «What's the deal?» «What's going on?» based on la onda which forms the basis of a large number of expressions related to the literary group formed by José Agustín and Gustavo Sainz. Other words include gacho (bad news), chilo (great, super) used by Mexican prepos (prep school students). This list may be useful for those exchange students and others enamored of youth culture.

D. Argot-Slang

164. Alarcón, Alejandro. El habla popular de los jóvenes en la ciudad de México. México: B. Costa-Amic Editor, 1977, 131 pp.; 2.ª ed. 1978, 158, bibl.

This book is of more value to the layperson but it does contain an appendix of the most common expressions of the youth of Mexico City. «En el desarrollo de este libro, vemos cómo la lengua española de esta urbe se ha enriquecido con la lengua náhuatl generando así los mexicanismos aquí estudiados, además del influjo de la lengua inglesa comercial y técnica, la aparición de pochismos, argotes y formas dialectales de expresión utilizadas principalmente por los jóvenes de la zona metropolitana».

«An excellent picture of youth-talk in Mexico City in the late 1970s. Writer says that 50 percent   —268→   of the terms have been invented by the young people, many are pochismos, involving border English, some are picardías. He presents in dialogue form what he claims is typical, and then fists hundreds of terms with definitions. This is a dialogue. Note how often the term madre occurs: "Tú sí eres a toda madre, mano, no como el Daniel que ya se le subió. Ya no quiere ni hablar. ¿Se le subió? pues, ¿en qué la gira? Está de jefe de personal en una fábrica; y ya se cree la mamá de Tarzán, ya ni saluda. ¡Qué poca madre! ¿te acuerdas cuando andaba bien fregado y no tenía ni madre para comer? Pues sí mano y todos le ayudábamos, pero pura madre que se acuerda"». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS: 4523 (1982).

165. Grimes, Larry M. El tabú lingüístico en el lenguaje erótico de los mexicanos. New York: Bilingual Press, 1978, 133 pp.

An excellent study of Mexican Spanish obscene vocabulary. Introduction provides a general survey of the psychological and linguistic role of profane language. Vocabulary is listed under general headings of «Euphemisms» and «Metaphors». This shortwork is a must for the scholar and layperson alike who wish to delve into the delights of Mexican «dirty talk».

166. Guijarro Montes, Gustavo. 700 refranes y dichos populares México, D. F., Impresos Turísticos Religiosos, 1983?, 152 pp.

«This book has a decidedly popular, often rural flavor and at times uses innovative orthography to convey this. It is marred by some common misspellings and missing accent marks, but seems to achieve its purpose of bringing together a wealth of anecdotal material and presenting it in a moderately successful manner», -Philip W. Klein in Lec, 3 (1984-85), 89.

167. Jiménez, A. Vocablos y expresiones que conviene evitar. Para los periodistas y locutores extranjeros. México: Comité Organizador del IX Campeonato Mundial de Fútbol Asociación, 1970.

A. Jiménez would seem to be the most prolific collector of the large number of witticisms and eroticisms Mexican Spanish is noted for. New editions of his works continue to appear with regularity.

168. Jiménez, A. Letreros, dibujos y grafitos groseros de la picardía mexicana (primicias). 5a. ed. Colección Duda Semanal. México: Editorial Posada, 1977.

169. Jiménez, A. Nueva picardía mexicana. 11a. ed, México: Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1977.

170. Jiménez, A. Picardía mexicana. 59a. ed., México: Costa-Amic Editor y Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1977.

171. Jiménez, A. Tumbaburro de la picardía mexicana: Diccionario de términos vulgares. México: Editorial Diana, 1977, 265 pp.

The author has succeeded in compiling forms of speech from the common people, from today's youth, and from chicano speech. He rescues from anonymity terminology and phrases from the street world, vice, and prostitution. Book contains double entendres, ordinary insults and offensive language, and all kinds of curses. «No se trata de un «diccionario» en el sentido estricto de la palabra, sino de una colección que podemos considerar como libro de consulta...» 2500 entries in alphabetical order. Bibliography of 27 works consulted.

172. Jiménez, A. Vocabulario prohibido de la picardía mexicana. 2a. ed. Colección Duda Semanal México: Editorial Posada, 1977.

173. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Algunos juegos de palabras en el español de México», LEA, 2 (1980), 219-43.

[L. B.] studies the festive or familiar word-play in Mexican Spanish which consists of the amplification of word endings or superposition of a more ample lexeme of the example ¡Qué Milán que te da Jalapa Veracruz por Acapulco! which translates ¡Qué milagro que te dejas ver por acá! [L. B.] gives an inventory of substitute forms of three classes: 1. toponyms; 2. antroponyms; and 3. gentilicios. Contains an alphabetical index of 370 words.

174. Lope Blanch, Juan M. «Un sistema de numeración festivo», in Romanica Europaea et Americana-Festschrift für Harri Meier 8. Januar 1980. Hrsg. von Hans Dieter Bork; Artur Greive; Dieter Woll. Bonn: Bouvier, 1980, 245-49.

Another study of Mexican word-play, this time involving numbers. For example, a student receiving poor grades might tell the teacher, «A usted le gustan los serafines» meaning of course that the teacher gives out ceros. Uno is substituted by uñas; dos is duques; tres becomes tripas, triste, triques; etc. All of these lexical substitutions have no more justification than a phonetic resemblance between the base word and the substitutes. [L. B.] refers us to A. Jiménez, Picardia mexicana, 6a. ed.,   —269→   México, 1961, p. 189, for the full jargon of the butcher-shop slang of counting «uñas, dedos, tripas, cuajos, cinturas, sesos, sienes, ojos, narices y dientes».

175. Martínez Pérez, José. Dichos, dicharachos y refranes mexicanos. México: Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1977.

176. Prieto, Raúl. Madre academia. Nueva ed. aum. y corr. México: Editorial Grijalbo, 1981, 759 pp., illus.

«Pornographically-oriented series of gibes directed at Spain's Royal Academy. Says Mamá Academia has provincial and antiquated point of view and supports contentions with hundreds of examples. Main objective is to entertain». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 46.4576 (1984).

177. Rivas Larrauri, Carlos. Del arrabal, recopilación, semblanza de Carlos Rivas Larrauri, prólogo y glosario por A. Jiménez, 2a. ed. México: Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1976.

178. Rosales, José Natividad. El diccionario de la grosería mexicana. México: Publicaciones Paralelo 32, 1973.

179. Rosenblat, Ángel. «Un turista en México», Abs. 36 (1972), 292-96.

In this short humerous note [A. R.] passes review on some of the dialectal variations of México which a tourist from Spain would encounter-beginning with the breakfast bolillos, not to be confused with the teleras or virotes in Guadalajara or the cojinillos in Veracruz. From taking a ruletero (taxicab) to being disconcerted with the Mexican way of answering the phone with bueno, our tourist is further distracted with the various pronunciations of x; and, at the dinner party on his farewell after telling the attractive young lady sitting beside him that she has a «cara de vasca» a complement in his Spanish which turns out to be an insult in Mexican Spanish, the beleagured tourist seeks refuge in Venezuela.

180. Tierney, R.W «Verbal Aggression in Mexico City», Maledicta, 3 (1979), 277-78.

181. Usandizaga y Mendoza, Pedro Maria de. El chingolés. México: B. Costa-Amic Editor, 1972, 286 pp.; 6th ed. 1979, 250 pp., 1 leaf of plates, illus.

According to the author the word «chingado» is of Germanic root introduced into México via Acapulco in Colonial times. (See entry 157). Forms of «chingado» enter into Mexican speech patterns as do «chiles» into Mexican food. Arranging by phrases alphabetically the many uses of this most graphic Mexican word the author «no hace más que pura chingada» with this handy guide.

«Sixth ed. of 1972 book. Entirely dedicated to phrases and derivatives of word chingado, which author claims is most Mexican of all words: nacionalista y revolucionaria, and basis of exclamations for any occasion. Like chile, he says, you add to everything. Includes hundreds of entries with illustrations on use (e. g., Hijo de la chingada has 34). Statement that word is of Germanic origin and came from Chile may be questioned». -As annot. by Canfield in HLAS 46: 4557 (1984).

182. Valcour, Eugenio. Tabu Spanish of Mexico. San Diego, California: Valcour and Krueger, 1976.

183. Velasco Valdés, Miguel. Refranero popular mexicano. 4a. ed. México: B. Costa-Amic Editores, 1971, 174 pp.

This book continues to appear with regularity since its first edition in 1961. «Recoge un buen número de dichos, expresiones, proverbios, resultado de la «picardía de la gente», de uso actual en México. Hace referencia, en muchos casos, al origen regional de éstos, y compara los usos en México con las definiciones de la Academia». -Carlos A. Solé in «Bibliografía del español de América: 1967-1971», AnLet, 10 (1972), 253-88, entry 240.

E. Semantics

184. Carrasco A, Alma. et al. «Análisis semiótico de la receta del mole poblano: Una aplicación del modelo de Greimes». Morphé 1 (1), (Dec. 1986), 155-73.

185. Cotton, Eleanor Greet and John M. Sharp. «Hypersemantization in Neologistic Mexican Spanish Verbs», Papers in Romance, 2 (1980), 229-46.

Authors study one of the most productive formulas for the coining of new verbs in popular Mexican Spanish -the addition of -ear/-iar to a stem. Verbs formed in this manner on English bases are not as numerous as those derived from Spanish. Neologisms from English are simple borrowings while those with Spanish bases are creative, vivid, and poetic. Five phonological rules for   —270→   the invention of verbs are developed. Contains an appendix of numbers and percentages according to bases, hypersemanticity, and motivation. A glossary of new verbs.